Enlarging the Application of the Food Security Index at European Union Regions


  • Larisa Mihoreanu King's College London
  • Laura Mariana Cismas West University Timisoara, Romania
  • Laura Maria Danila Jianu West University Timisoara, Romania




Food security, regional index, measurements and indicators, European Union


The food security remains a major priority and a typical issue that requires immediate international solutions. Recent studies reveal the increasing complexity of food security issues focusing on the necessity to address formal actions and solve the dramatic situations. New tools are always welcome to facilitate solutions’ implementation.In September 2015, the United Nations Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda of Sustainable Development among the goals of which the followings are fundamental: no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, clean water and climate action. The European Union joined the Program, expressing the full commitment to its implementation. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the number of undernourished people reached in 2017 about 821 million peoples, representing an increase from about 804 million peoples in 2016. The 2018 statistics of FAO state that 22% of children under-five are affected by malnutrition, while over 38 million children in the same age group are overweight.Beyond the premises, as a novelty, we contribute at the food security knowledge by calculating a regional index at European and Romanian levels to better outline the realities and provide the decision-makers with a new tool to find better solutions.

Author Biographies

Laura Mariana Cismas, West University Timisoara, Romania

The West University, Timisoara, Romania

Laura Maria Danila Jianu, West University Timisoara, Romania

The West University, Timisoara, Romania


• Davood, J., Abbas, A., Ghadermazi, H. and Tavakkolli, J., 2017. Measuring Food Security and its Determinants in Rural Areas: A Case Study of the farmers in the Central District of Ravansar, Kermanshah, Journal of Geography and Regional Development Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 45-48, [online] Available at: https://jgrd.um.ac.ir/index.php/geography/article/.../12426.

• Edgerton-Tarpley, Kathryn, 2017. Famine in Imperial and Modern China. Food and Foodways, Online Publication Date: March. Ancient History, Oxford Research encyclopedia. DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.133, http://oxfordre.com/asianhistory/abstract/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.001.0001/acrefore-9780190277727-e-133.

• FAO, 2009. The State of Food and Agriculture Livestock in the balance, http://www.fao.org/3/a-i0680e.pdf.

• FAO, 1975. The State of Food and Agriculture1974, Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/f3350e/f3350e.pdf.

• FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO, 2018. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018. Building climate resilience for food security and nutrition. Rome, FAO. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/I9553EN/i9553en.pdf.

• International Food Policy Research Institute, 2017. Global Hunger Index. The Inequalities of Hunger, [online] Available at: https://www.globalhungerindex.org/pdf/en/2017.pdf.

• Krishnamurthy, P.K., Lewis, K. and Choularton, R.J., 2014. A methodological framework for rapidly assessing the impacts of climate risk on national-level food security through a vulnerability index, Global Environ, [online] Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.gloenvcha.2013.11.004.

• Leroy, J.L., Ruel, M., , Frongill, E.A., Harris, J. and Ballard, T.J., 2015. Measuring the Food Access Dimension of Food Security: A Critical Review and Mapping of Indicators, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 36(2), pp. 167-195, DOI: 10.1177/0379572115587274, [online] Available at: https://journals. sagepub.com/doi/pdf/ 10.1177/ 0379572115587274.

• Luca, L., 2013. Măsurarea Securităţii Alimentare a României cu ajutorul unor Indicatori Agregaţi, [online] Available at: http://conferinta2013.academiacomerciala.ro/ VOLCONF2013PDF/.

• Maricic, M., Bulajic, M., Dobrota, M. and Jeremic, V., 2016. Redesigning the Global Food Security Index: a Multivariate Composite I-Distance Indicator Approach, International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics ISSN 2147-8988, E-ISSN: 2149-3766 Vol. 4(No. 1, Special Issue), pp. 69-86, [online] Available at: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/231376/.

• Maxwell, S. and M. Smith, 1992. "Household Food Security: A Conceptual Review," in S. Maxwell and T. Frankenberger (eds) Householdfood Security: Concepts, Indicators, and Measurements: A Technical Review. New York and Rome. UNICEF and IFAD.

• Napoli, M., 2011.Towards a Food Insecurity Multidimensional Index FIMI, Univ. Tre Roma. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ERP/uni/FIMI.pdf

• Nur Asih, D. and Klasen, S., 2017. Improving food security? Setting indicators and observing change of rural household in Central Sulawesi, Regular Research Article, Forest and Society, Vol. 1(2),pp.154-161, November, ISSN: 2549-4724, E-ISSN: 2549-4333, [online] Available at: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/197471.

• Pinstrup-Andersen, P., 2009. Food security: definition and measurement, Springer Science+ Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology, Food Sec. 1:5–7, DOI 10.1007/s12571-008-0002-y, [online], available at: http://www.observatoriosegurida dalimentaria.org/sites/default/files/Pinstrup-Andersen_Food%20Security-Definiition-Measurement_2009.pdf.

• Santeramo, F.G., 2014. On the composite indicators for food security: Decisions matter!, University of Foggia, MPRA Paper No. 58955, [online] Available at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/58955/.

• The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2018. Global Food Security Index 2018. Building Resilience In The Face Of Rising Food-Security Risks, [online] Available at: https://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/.

• The Food and Agriculture Organization, 2009. An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security, Food Security Information for Action. Practical Guides, [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-al936e.pdf.

• United Nations, 2015. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, [online] Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/ documents/21252030/.

• United Nations, 1975. Report of the World Food Conference, Rome 5-16 Nov., E/CONF.65/20, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/701143/files/E_CONF.65_20-EN.pdf.

• World Bank, 1986. Report on poverty and hunger, Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. The World Bank Washington, D.C., U.S.A