Brain drain: Propulsive factors and consequences
Keywords:brain drain, family income, higher education, students
AbstractWhen speaking about the total number of highly educated individuals’ migration, it is easy to spot that it is rapidly increasing. The brain drain issues should be taken very seriously especially in under developed and in the developing countries, knowing that the human capital is globally mobile and that highly educated individuals can without any issues market their knowledge around the globe. Dealing with it requires a carefully tailored strategy for these countries, which are suffering from severe human capital losses on annual basis. Since the labor markets of today are highly competitive, it is necessary for these countries to secure good advancement and doing business opportunities. The purpose of this research is to provide an insight into the key propulsive factors and potential consequences caused by the brain drain. The method used in order to conduct the research was a carefully designed questionnaire taken by the date subject enrolled at the third and fourth years of state governed and privately owned universities. This research shows that one of the key reasons for brain drain in underdeveloped and in the developing countries is shortage of further educational advancement opportunities.
Avveduto, S., & Brandi, M. C. (2004). Le migrazioniqualificate in Italia. StudiEmigrazione, 41(156), 797-830.
Bhagwati, J., N., and K. Hamada. 1974.“The Brain Drain International Integration of Markets for Professionals and Unemployment: A Theoretical Analysis, Journal of Development Economics,1, 19-24.
Borjas, G. J. (1994). Immigration and welfare, 1970-1990 (No. w4872). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Docquier, Frédéric, & AbdeslamMarfouk. "International Migration by Educational Attainment (1990-2000)-Release 1.1." database 1990 (2000): 16.
Erasmus Plus. (2015). Statistics, Retrieved 15. December 2017, from http://erasmusplus.rs/mobility/statistics/
Glaeser, E. L., Kallal, H. D., Scheinkman, J. A., &Shleifer, A. (1992). Growth in cities. Journal of political economy, 100(6), 1126-1152.
Havergal, C., Opening universities linked to increased GDP, Retrieved from: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/opening-universities-linked-to-increased-gross-domestic-product-gdp#survey-answer, Accessed on December 7, 2017.
Joksimović, N. Ž.,&Benković, S. (2015). The challenges of higher education financing, Retrieved 13. December 2017, from http://www.finhed.org/media/files/Finding%20the%20Right%20Path.pdf#page=130
Jöns, H. (2009). ‘Brain circulation’and transnational knowledge networks: studying long‐term effects of academic mobility to Germany, 1954–2000. Global Networks, 9(3), 315-338.
Kapur, D., & McHale, J. (2005). Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
Kumar, S., &Phrommathed, P. (2005). Research methodology (pp. 43-50). Springer US.
Le, T. (2008). ‘Brain Drain’or ‘Brain Circulation’: Evidence from OECD's International Migration and R&D Spillovers. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 55(5), 618-636.
Lingard, H. (2012). Balancing study and paid work: the experiences of construction undergraduates in an Australian university. Construction Economics and Building, 5(1), 41-47.
Lucas, R., &Lammont, N. (1998). Combining Work and Study: an empirical study of full‐time students in school, college and university∗. Journal of education and work, 11(1), 41-56.
Mattoo, A., Neagu, I. C., &Özden, Ç. (2008). Brain waste? Educated immigrants in the US labor market. Journal of Development Economics, 87(2), 255-269.
Nakamuro, M., & Ogawa, K. (2010). Mobility of skilled labor in transition economies: The perspectives from brain-drain, brain-waist, brain circulation and brain gain. Journal of International Cooperation Studies, 18(1), 71-84.
Ranjit, K. (1999). Research methodology.
Schiff, M. (2005). Brain gain: claims about its size and impact on welfare and growth are greatly exaggerated.
Stanković, D. (2011). Odliv mozgova kao gubitak i(li) dobitak za zemlju porekla. Godišnjak FPN, (05), 515-526.
Stanojević, D., Živadinović, I., &ČekićMarković., J. (2015). Aspirations and needs of students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia, Retrieved 13. December 2017, from http://www.finhed.org/media/files/Finding%20the%20Right%20Path.pdf#page=130
Times Higher Education. The TACTICS countries: potential and the polity (2016). taken on 18.6.17, from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/comment/the-tactics-countries-potential-and-the-polity
Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.
United Nations (UN). (2000). Population Division. Retrieved 12. December, from http://www.un.org/en/index.html
Valero, A., & Van Reenen, J. (2016). The economic impact of universities: Evidence from across the globe (No. w22501). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Vlada Republike Srbije (2011). Migracioni profil Republike Srbije za 2010. Retreived 16. December 2017, from https://serbia.iom.int/sites/default/files/publications/documents/Migracioni profil RS za 2010 godinu.pdf
World Economic Forum. (2016) These countries could be the world's new education superstars. Taken on 18.07.2017., from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/countries-global-higher-education-superstars-tactics?utm_content=buffer684d0&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer
Ziderman, A. (2002). Alternative objectives of national student loan schemes: Implications for design, evaluation and policy. The Welsh Journal of Education, 11(1), 37-47.
Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People by Authors is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ojs.spiruharet.ro/index.php/jedep/issue/archive.