CO2 Embodied in Trade between Poland and Selected Countries


  • Jan T. Mizgajski Department of Market Conditions Research, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznan University of Economics, Poland



Carbon dioxide, embodied emission, Input–Output analysis


This study is aimed at analysing the carbon embodied in trade flows between Poland and its major trade partners. Calculations are based on the data from the GTAP database for the year 2004. The study uses an input-output analysis, which allows responsibility to be assigned to individual flows for generating specific amounts of emissions in the economy. It is shown that Polish exports contain significantly more embodied carbon than Polish imports, despite the fact that the value of the imports is higher. Moreover, it is found that among the surveyed countries, only three were net importers of carbon emissions to Poland. Export to Germany is responsible for the most of emissions in Poland. In turn, Poland receives the most emissions from imports from Russia.


2003/87/EC D. (2009). Directive 2009/29/EC 1. of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community.

Atkinson G., Hamilton K., Ruta G. and Van Der Mensbrugghe D. (2011). Trade in [`]virtual carbon’: Empirical results and implications for policy. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 563-574.

Badri Narayanan and Walmsley T., Eds. (2008). Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP 7 Data Base, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.

Bernard A. and Vielle M. (2009). Assessment of European Union transition scenarios with a special focus on the issue of carbon leakage. Energy Economics, 31 (Supplement 2), S274-S284.

Chen Z. M., Chen G. Q. and Chen B. (2010). Embodied Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the World Economy: A Systems Input-Output Simulation for 2004. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2, 1827-1840.

Chen Z. M. and Chen G. Q. (2011). Embodied carbon dioxide emission at supranational scale: A coalition analysis for G7, BRIC, and the rest of the world. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2899-2909.

Clò S. (2010). Grandfathering, auctioning and Carbon Leakage: Assessing the inconsistencies of the new ETS Directive. Energy Policy, 38(5), 2420-2430.

Dissou Y. and Eyland T. (2011). Carbon control policies, competitiveness, and border tax adjustments. Energy Economics, 33(3), 556-564.

Dong Y., Ishikawa M., Liu X. and Wang C. (2010). An analysis of the driving forces of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade. Energy Policy, 38(11), 6784-6792.

Gavrilova O., Jonas M., Erb K. and Haberl H. (2010). International trade and Austria’s livestock system: Direct and hidden carbon emission flows associated with production and consumption of products. Ecological Economics, 69(4), 920-929.

Guo J., Zou L.-L. and Wei Y.-M. (2010). Impact of inter-sectoral trade on national and global CO2 emissions: An empirical analysis of China and US. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1389-1397.

Helm D., Smale R. and Phillips J. (2007) Too good to be true: the UK’s climate change

record. (10 June 2011)

Kuik O. and Hofkes M. (2010). Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage. Energy Policy, 38(4), 1741-1748.

Lee H.-L. (2008). The combustion-based CO2 emissions data for GTAP Version 7 Data Base, Center for Global for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue Universty: West Lafayette.

Lenzen M. (1998). Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis. Energy Policy, 26(6), 495-506.

Leontief W. W. (1941). The structure of American economy, 1919-1929 : an empirical application of equilibrium analysis / by Wasaily W. Leontief. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. :.

Lin B. and Sun C. (2010). Evaluating carbon dioxide emissions in international trade of China. Energy Policy, 38(1), 613-621.

Liu X., Ishikawa M., Wang C., Dong Y. and Liu W. (2010). Analyses of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1510-1518.

Metz B., Davidson O. R., Bosch P. R., Dave R. and Meyer L. A. (2007). Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press.

Miller R. and Blair P. (2009). Input–Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Munoz P. and Steininger K. W. (2010). Austria’s CO2 responsibility and the carbon content of its international trade. Ecological Economics, 69(10), 2003-2019.

Neuhof R. I. a. K. (2007). Border tax adjustment: a feasible way to support stringent emissions trading. European Journal of Law and Economics, 24, 137–164.

Peters G. (2008). From production-based to consumption-based national emission inventories. Ecological Economics, 65(1), 13-23.

Peters G. P. and Hertwich E. G. (2008). CO2 Embodied in International Trade with Implications for Global Climate Policy. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(5), 1401-1407.

Rhee H.-C. and Chung H.-S. (2006). Change in CO2 emission and its transmissions between Korea and Japan using international input-output analysis. Ecological Economics, 58(4), 788-800.

Schaeffer R. and Andre L. d. S. (1996). The embodiment of carbon associated with Brazilian imports and exports. Energy Conversion and Management, 37(6-8), 955-960.

Eggleston S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (2006). IPCC 2006, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program me.

Su B., Huang H. C., Ang B. W. and 29. Zhou P. (2010). Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of sector aggregation. Energy Economics, 32(1), 166-175.

Subak S. (1995). Methane embodied in the international trade of commodities: Implications for global emissions. Global Environmental Change, 5(5), 433-446.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. United Nations (1992). FCCC/INFORMAL/84.

Wiedmann T. (2009). A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emission and resource accounting. Ecological Economics, 69(2), 211-222.

Wyckoff A. W. and Roop J. M. (1994). The embodiment of carbon in imports of manufactured products : Implications for international agreements on greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Policy, 22(3), 187-194.

Zhang Z. (2009). Multilateral trade measures in a post-2012 climate change regime? What can be taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO? Energy Policy, 37(12), 5105-5112.


Additional Files