• Cleopas Fore Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, School of Management, College of Business & Economics, University of Johannesburg
  • Wilfred Ukpere University of Johannesburg



Affirmative action, globalisation, indigenisation, employee share ownership, worker rights, workplace democracy


Globalisation debate in recent years is characterised with trade literature, growth and formation of multinational companies, the internationalisation motive, market liberalisation and the impact of these on nation states’ labour markets (Giddens, 2004). Zimbabwe as a nation is not exempted from the impact of globalisation on its labour relations. Literature review identified that to curb the adverse effects of globalisation, Zimbabwe adopted the use of affirmative action policies, which were received with mixed feelings of criticisms and appreciations. This article sought to understand the impact of globalisation on affirmative action and establish the extent to which affirmative action policies ameliorate the negative effects of globalisation. A qualitative paradigm was adopted.  Data was gathered through the use of interviews and participants memoirs. Results were analysed by usingf both Nvivo 10 and manual coding. Results showed that either globalisation has an impact on affirmative action through inspiring the promulgation of policies or labour legislation that eradicates discrimination, or it can stifle some policies that deter globalisation. The article recommended that to ensure fairer globalisation there is need to use affirmative action policies to ameliorate discriminations occasioned by globalisation on Zimbabwe’s employment relations. Affirmative action policies need to be properly discussed and shared by all social partners to increase the chance of success in their implementation. With openness and shared goals, affirmative action policies and laws can help to achieve fairer globalisation.

Author Biography

Wilfred Ukpere, University of Johannesburg

Wilfred Ukpere is a Full-Professor in the department of Industrial Psychology and People Management in the School of Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg.


Bachalet, M. (2012). Global Employment Trends for Women. Geneva: International Labour Organisation.

Bajaj, D. (2013, December 30). The economic Impact of Land Reforms in Zimbabwe. Harare, Harare, Zimbabwe: The Herald.

Bendix, S. (2007). Industrial Relations in South Africa. Cape Town: Juta.

Campbell, M. (2018). What will it Take to Fix the Mess in Zimbabwe? Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 6 12, 2018, from>features

Chidede, T. (2016). LegalPprotection of Foreign Direct Investment: A critical Assessment with Focus on South Africa and Zimbabwe. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing.

Chiripanhura, B., & Makwawarara, T. (2000). Labour Market and Economic Development. Harare: Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions.

Dube, C. F. (2013). Zimbabwe indigenisation programs (ZIP). ICAZ Winter School 2013 (pp. 1-51). Victoria Falls: Government of Zimbabwe.

Dupper, O. (2008). Afirmative Action: Who, how and how long? South African Journal on Human Rights, 425-444.

Fobanjong, J. (2001). Understanding the Backlash Against Affirmative Action. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Fredman, S. (2005). Changing the Norm: Positive Duties in Equal Treatment Legislation. Journal of European and Comparative Law, 12, 369-398.

Giddens, A. (2004). Five Dilemmas - The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Gwisai, M. (2006). Employment law in Zimbabwe. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Press.

Hatcher, T. (2007). Workplace Democracy: A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development. Online Submission.

Held, D. (1999). Global Transformation: Politics, Economics and Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hepple, B. (1997). New Approaches to Internationa Labour Regulations. Industrial Law Journal, 353-366.

(2011). Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act [Chapter 14:33], (2011). Zimbabwe Goverment Gazette.

International Labour Organisation. (2012). Global Employment Trends for Women. Geniva: International Labour Organisation.

Jones, A. J. (1991). Affirmative Talk, Affirmative Action: A comparative Study of the Politics of Affirmative Action. New York: Praeger.

Kamidza, R. (2017). From Antagonism to Re-engagement: Zimbabwe's Trade Negotiations with the European Union. North West Region: Langaa Research & Publishing.

Kanyenze, G. (2011). Beyond the Enclave: Towards a Pro-poor and Inclusive Development Strategy for Zimbabwe. Harare: Weaver Press.

Kazlowski, M. (2014). The relationship Between Worker's Financial Participation in Companies and Economic Results. Comparative Economic Research, 1273-1319.

Khor, M. (2000). Globalisation and the South: Some critical Issues. Researchgate.

(n.d.). Labour Act [Chapter 28:01], as amended. Zimbabwe Government Gazette.

(2015). Labour Amendment Number 5 of 2015. Zimbabwe Government Gazette.

Macdonald, D. (1997). Indsutrial Relations and Globalization: Challenges for Employers and their Organizations. Turin: ILO.

Madhuku, L. (2015). Labour Law in Zimbabwe. Harare: Weaver Press.

Mahapa, M., & Watadza, C. (2015). The Dark Side of Arbitration and Conciliation. Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies, 3(2), 65-76.

Malaba, L. (2017). Remarks by the Honourablle Chief Justice Malaba on the Occassion of the Judges Symposium: Employer's Right to Terminate Employee's Contract on Notice. Judges Symposium 2017, (pp. 1-9). Harare.

Marcela, I., Ashok, R., & Gerhard, R. (2015). Sorting Through Affirmative Action: Three Field Experiments in Colombia. Colombia: Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.

Maruzani, N. (2013). Gender Discrimination in Retail Shops' Personnel: The Case of General Dealer Shops at Murambinda Growth Point, Buhera, Zimbabwe. International Journal of Asian Social Sciences , 669-681.

Matyszak, D. (2016). Chaos Clarified: Zimbabwe's New Indigenisation Framework . Harare: Research and Advocacy Unit.

McGregor, M. (2013). Affirmative Action on Trial - Determining the Legitimacy and Fair Application of Remedial Measures. TSAR, 650-675.

Mucheche, C. (2017). A legal Analysis of Retrenchment and Termination of Employment Under the Labour Laws of Zimbabwe Ushered in by the Labour Amendment Act, 2015 . The Zimbabwe Electronic Law Journal, 1-5.

Muzondidya, J. (2010). The Zimbabwean Crisis and Unresolved Conudrum of Race in the Post-Colonial Period. Journal of Developing Societies, 26(1), 5-38.

Muzulu, J. (1996). Beyond ESAP: Industrial policies for rapid growth and development. Harare: ZCTU.

Ncube, M. (2000). Employment, Unemployment and Evolution of Labour Policy in Zimbabwe. Zambezia, XXVII(ii), 161-194. Retrieved June 8, 2017, from

Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2013). The Crisis of Adapting History in Zimbabwe. The Adapting of History: Essays on Ways of Telling the Past, 129-140.

Papacostantis, H., & Mushariwa, M. (2016). The Impact of Minority Status in the Application Affirmative Action: Naido v Minister of Safety and Security 2013 BLLR. Academy of Science of South Africa: Open Journal System, 1-25.

Raftopoulos, B. (1995). Beyond ESAP: Governance and Indeginisation in Zimbabwe. Harare: ZCTU.

Sachikonye, L. M. (1990). The Protection of Security of Employment: The Zimbabwean Experience. Harare: Zimbabwe Institute of Development Studies.

Sandada, M., Basil, K. B., & Muposhi, A. (2016). The Influence of Employee Share Ownership Schemes on Firm Performance: The Case of Zimbabwean Firms. CECONOMICA, 37-50.

Seyani, A. K. (2016, June 23). The effects of the Supreme Court Ruling by Chief Justice Godfrey Chidyausiku in the Case of Nyamande and Anor v Zuva on Labour Relations: The Case of Zimbabwe's Parastals. Retrieved from MSUIR Repository:

Shelton, W., & Bingay, M. (1946). Tie Wages to Profits. In W. Shelton, & M. Bingay, The Rotarian. Google Books. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from

Simon, D. (2004, 6 22). University of Michigan. Retrieved from University of Michigan:>urc>simon

Skorupinska, K. (2014). Direct Employee Participation in the Management of Polich Companies. Journal of Positive Management, 78-91.

Soroka, S. N., Banting, K., & Johnson, R. (2006). Immigration and Redistribution in a Global Era. Research Gate.

Ukpere, W. I. (2011). Mechanisms to Ameriorate Negative Impacts of Globalisation on Human Resources, Industrial Democracy and Humanity. Journal for Acadamic Research in Economics, 88-110.

Uzhenyu, D. (2016). Recent Supreme Court Labour Judgement: A Threat to Sound Labour Relations and Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe. Journal of Business and Management, 17(10), 76-84.

Weisskopf, T. E. (2009). Reflections on Globalisation, Discrimination and Affirmative action. Michigan, United States: Sage.

Worstall, T. (2017, May 5). With 95% unemployment rate Robert Mugabe Insists Zimbabwe is not Fragile. Forbes Margazine. Forbes.

Zikhali, W., Ncube, G., & Tshuma, N. (2014). From Economic Development to Local Economic Growth: Income Generation Projects in Nkayi District, Zimbabwe. The International Journal of Human and Social Studies, 27-33.

Zinyuke, R. (2017). Employee Share Owenrship Scheme: A Mixed Bag. Harare: The Herald.




How to Cite

Fore, C., & Ukpere, W. (2022). AFFIRMATIVE ACTION’S MEDIATION ROLE ON THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON THE PROLETARIANS IN ZIMBABWE. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 11(2), 24–50.